Lation of CD4+ T cells differentiation in schistosomiasis. Moreover, these novel findings imply that AQP4 could function as a new therapeutic target if it is actually directly involved in Th polarization pathways within immune technique cells by modulating CD4+ T cell Aurora B Inhibitor MedChemExpress responses for schistosomiasis or other immune-associated diseases.Abbreviations AQP4: Aquaporin four; S. japonicum: Schistosoma japonicum; SWA: Schistosome worm antigen; SEA: Soluble egg antigen; Th1: T helper 1; MFI: Mean fluorescence intensity; FCM: Flow cytometrypeting interests The authors declare that they’ve no competing interests.Authors’ contributions CS conceived and made the experiments. WZ and JZ analyzed the information. WZ, JZ, XS, ZX, XX, XC, XY, YL, XD, SZ, WL, YQ, FL performed the experiments. Manuscript was written by CS and WZ. All authors study and authorized the final manuscript.Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge help from David Hanigan (Arizona State University) for critique from the manuscript. This operate was supported by the grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81271861) and also the grant from Jiangsu Province (12KJA310001) to Chuan Su. Furthermore, this can be a project partially funded by the Priority Academic System Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD) and Nanjing DYRK2 Inhibitor list Healthcare University (JX21831802/005).Zhang et al. Parasites Vectors (2015)eight:Web page 14 ofAuthor details 1 Department of Pathogen Biology Immunology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pathogen Biology, Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China. 2Department of Pharmacology, Jiangsu Important Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Nanjing Healthcare University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China. 3Department of Oncology, The very first Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China. Received: 19 April 2014 Accepted: ten JanuaryReferences 1. Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J, Kestens L. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2006;368:1106?eight. two. Li XX, Zhou XN. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic overview. Parasit Vectors. 2013;six:79. three. Pearce EJ, MacDonald AS. The immunobiology of schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:499?11. four. Wilson MS, Mentink-Kane MM, Pesce JT, Ramalingam TR, Thompson R, Wynn TA. Immunopathology of schistosomiasis. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:148?four. five. Hams E, Aviello G, Fallon PG. The schistosoma granuloma: pal or foe? Front Immunol. 2013;4:89. six. Zhu D, He X, Duan Y, Chen J, Wang J, Sun X, et al. Expression of microRNA454 in TGF-beta1-stimulated hepatic stellate cells and in mouse livers infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:148. 7. Tallima H, Salah M, Guirguis FR, El Ridi R. Transforming growth factor-beta and Th17 responses in resistance to key murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Cytokine. 2009;48:239?5. 8. Wynn TA, Thompson RW, Cheever AW, Mentink-Kane MM. Immunopathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev. 2004;201:156?7. 9. Wen X, He L, Chi Y, Zhou S, Hoellwarth J, Zhang C, et al. Dynamics of Th17 cells and their role in Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;five:e1399. 10. Li J, Zhuang W, Cong L, Shi W, Cai X, Huang F, et al. Cyclophilin A from Schistosoma japonicum promotes a Th2 response in mice. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:330. 11. Hirata M, Kage M, Hara T, Yoneda Y, Zhang M, Fukuma T. Schistosoma japonicum egg granuloma formation inside the interleukin-4 or int.